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Section outline

  • Infrastructure of Quality - schematic representation (for Croatia)

    • Quality specification and conformity assessment of textile products

      The explaination of a quality as a strategic category in business,
      Explaination of conceptual definition of textile product quality in accordance with modern production-market relationships and environmental requirements through the triangle of quality/product purpose/user requirements, see in the fig. below.


      Definition of quality according to ISO standard:

      „the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements”

      Quality management and Environmental management 
      Social and environmental quality as the intersection between designed and achieved quality, and quality requested by the customers and society.

      Heras-Saizarbitoria et al. rely on this definition in the QM paradigm to coin novel concepts, such as social and environmental quality, by which they mean the incorporation in the field of business management of the trend to minimize the negative social and environmental impacts of the activities of organizations.

      Source: Heras-Saizarbitoria, I.; Arana, G.; Casadesús, M.; Merino, J. Kalitate-Kudeaketaren Hastapenak; The University of The Basque County: Vizcaya, Spain, 2007.

      What is a (total) quality management system?

      Quality management system is a system based approach of the organization to manage its processes to well define and meet the requirements of its customers, risk and stakeholders touched by its work (


                                Fig. TQM tool for implementing a quality management and programmes for continuous quality improvement.


      👉 More informations you can read in Lecture I: Quality as strategic category in business.

    • ISO 9001 The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a non-governmental international organization, which promulgates international standards, which are adapted to the current market needs and which drive innovation and support when challenges arise, or change is wished.  

        • Its creation was demanded by engineers in 1946 in London and it started to operate in 1947 (ISO, 2020).
        • In 1987, ISO published the ISO 9000 family, which is a set of quality management system (QMS) standards.
        • The most common standard of the ISO 9000 family is ISO 9001, which is the only standard of this family that can be certified.
        • The last (newest) version of ISO 9001 has been released in 2015.
        • ISO 9001:2015 is the international standard that specifies all the requirements needed to implement a quality management system. 

      Usuful link: ISO 9000 Series of Standards - What is ISO 9000? | ASQ

      Usuful link: ISO 9001:2015 Quality Management System Certification in UK| dubai| oman| qatar| bahrain (

      ISO 9001 establishes the requirements to implement, document, maintain and improve a QMS and it is based on the quality management principles (7), which are implied in ISO 9000 and therefore also in ISO 9001 (2015):  

      §“Customer focus”,
      §“Engagement of people”,
      §“Process approach”,                                            
      §“Evidence based decision making”
      §“Relationship management”.

        • Companies implement ISO 9001 and can decide to certify it.
        • Certification is a process in which a third-party, namely a certification body, audits if the QMS implemented in the organization meets the requirements of the ISO 9001.
        • The audit process is done in accordance to the company who supports the auditors during the on-site audit.
        • If the evaluation is positive, the company receives the certificate which is valid for 3 years.
        • The ISO 9001 certification supports “knowledge management, customer satisfaction and organizational image”


                                                      Fig.: High level structure Process approach ISO; Source: ISO (2015)

    • Certification Process

      1. Preliminary audit (optional):

      This is initial assessment of the QMS implementation in company, and the audit focuses mainly on the areas of the system for which  further improvements according to ISO requirements are needed. After identification and eradicating potential vulnerabilities in the management system, the audit in relation to the certification begins.

      2. Certification audit:

      This phase is comprised of a stage 1 and stage 2 audit consists of detailed review where, the auditors assess documentation and practical application of quality management system according to certification requirements. 

      3. Issue Certificate:

      Once when the auditors who are experts in the sector, identifies that audited QMS satisfies the requirements of ISO 9001:2015, accredited certification body with expertise in QMS will Issue the ISO 9001:2015. certificate.

      4. Surveillance audit:

      Annual surveillance of the processes optimization in company  and quality management system to ensure conformity of the system with  the ISO standards carried out.

      5. Re-certification:

      Every 3 years from the certificate date, which is also maximum validity of the certificate, organization passes the re-certification process for the next term.

      Source: ISO 9001:2015 Quality Management System Certification in UK| dubai| oman| qatar| bahrain (

    • §EMS definition - is a set of internal rules defined by a collection of policies, processes, procedures, and records.

      §This system defines how a company identifies, evaluates, monitors and maintains interactions with the environment to avoid negative environmental impacts. 

      §The ISO 14000 series of standards is applicable to various types of work organizations.

      The main goals of ISO 14001 standard:
      • Sustainable development - achieving a balance between the environment, society and the economy without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs (sustainability)                                
      • Help the organizations respond to changing environmental conditions              
      • Help organizations to achieve the expected results of the environmental management system
      • Defines measures that the organization can implement to reduce the negative impact of its activities and continuously improve its environmental performance. 
      • It is intended for all organizations which want to increase resource efficiency, reduce waste and reduce costs.
      Source of fig.:

      Benefits ISO 14001
      • The benefits of a systematic environmental management approach
      • Savings on potential penalties by complying with legal regulations
      • Continuous increase of awareness of respect for environmental requirements and consequences, involvement of people
      • Introduction of a culture of continuous improvement
      • Targeted investment, evidence-based decisions
      • More optimized resource use, reduced waste and costs
      • Increasing the reputation of the company and market position, customer trust
      • Increasing worker safety and health

      Usuful link: What Is an Environmental Management System? | ASQ

      Expected benefits of EMS

      More rational spending of natural resources and  energy
      Reducing of the amount of waste and emissions
      Using renewable natural raw material and energy resources

      General Benefits:

      Increasing the efficiency and competitiveness of company
      Developing employees' awareness of the need for environmental protection.

    • Under the new ISO 14001:2015 standard, organisations are required to consider including environmental requirements at the design stage and during procurement, and to provide information about potential significant environmental impacts to intermediaries, end users and those involved in end-of-life treatment of a product (see fig below).                               


      Fig.: The lifecycle and ISO 14001 requirements, Source: diagram-1-ISO-article-e1454323818941.png (821×400) (

      The revised 14001 standard does not go as far as requiring lifecycle assessment and the gathering of large quantities of data, but it does recognise that an understanding of environmental impacts across the lifecycle, even at a high level, will help concentrate efforts on where they matter most – and this means not just for the environment but for the business as well.

      Source: ISO 14001 Standard: Lifecycle thinking (

    • The EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) is a premium management instrument developed by the European Commission for companies and other organisations to evaluate, report, and improve their environmental performance. 

      EMAS is open to every type of organisation eager to improve its environmental performance. It spans all economic and service sectors and is applicable worldwide.

      With EMAS, your organisation can reduce its environmental impacts, strengthen legal compliance and employee involvement, and save resources and money!

    • Quality Control represent a set of activities for ensuring quality - from raw material to finish products, which were oriented on identifying defects in finished products or during the production process for corrective measures - using 7 QC tools and 8D probelm - solving methodology.

      We said that the QC is a reactive approach.

    • Examples of good practice of Multiple Linear Regression and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models which were used for for predicting the thermal protective and thermo-physiological comfort performances. Through a comparison of the predicting performance parameters of these models, it has been found that ANN models can more accurately predict the performances of fabrics. 

      These models can be implemented in the textile industry and academia for effectively and conveniently predicting the thermal protective and thermo-physiological comfort performances only by utilizing the key fabric properties.

    • Create your quality infrastructure and how it is organized quality infrastructure in your country? Find which "homes" (for example Agency for accreditation,...) you have (in your countries) and enter their links to the e-course.

      • Student task Student task